A pod of killer whales swims

Killer Whale Studies

This bibliography lists the contributions to scientific literature we have made over the course of our history: more than 350 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and books (authored in whole or part) by our team members. These publications include research on a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals in numerous arenas of investigation.

Our company is committed to advancing knowledge and conservation. This bibliography lists the contributions to scientific literature we have made over the course of our history: more than 300 peer-reviewed articles, book chapters and books (authored in whole or part) by our team members. (The names in bold indicate an affiliation with our company.) These publications include research on a wide variety of marine and terrestrial animals in numerous arenas of investigation. These studies reflect the knowledge, skill, commitment and passion of our staff. Beyond these direct contributions, still more manuscripts were authored by outside researchers that utilized our animals and data. Those outside studies benefited from access to our animals in a controlled environment that is impossible to duplicate in the wild.



Ambati, B. K., Nozaki, M., Singh, N., Takeda, A., Jani, P. D., Suthar, T., Albuquerque, R. J. C., Richter, E., Sakurai, E., Newcomb, M. T., Kleinman, M. E., Caldwell, R. B., Lin, Q., Ogura, Y., Orecchia, A., Samuelson, D. A., Agnew, D. W., St. Leger, J., Green, W. R., Mahasreshti, P. J., Curiel, D. T., Kwan, D., Marsh, H., Ikeda, S., Leiper, L. J., Collinson, J. M., Bogdanovich, S., Khurana, T. S., Shibuya, M., Baldwin, M. E., Ferrara, N., Gerber, H., De Falco, S., Witta, J., Baffi, J. Z., Raisler, B. J. and Ambati, J. 2006. Corneal avascularity is due to soluble VEGF receptor-1. Nature, 443(7114): 993-997.

Andrews, B., Davis, W. and Parham, D. 2001.  Corporate response and facilitation of the rehabilitation of a California gray whale calf.  Aquatic Mammals.  27(3):209-211.

Anthony, S.J., St. Leger, J. A., Pugliares, K., Ip, H.S., Chan, J.M., Carpenter, Z.W., Navarette-Macias, I., Sanchez-Leon, M., Saliki, J.T., Pedersen, J., Karesh, W., Daszak, P., Rabadan, R., Rowles, T. and Lipkin, W.I. 2012.  Emergence of fatal avian influenza in New England harbor seals. mBio. 3(4): e00166-12.

Anthony, S.J., St. Leger, J. A., Navarrete-Macias, I., Nilson, E., Sanchez-Leon, M., Liang, E., Seimon, T., Jain, K., Karesh, W., Daszak, P., Briese, T. and Lipkin, W.I. 2013. Identification of a novel cetacean polyomavirus from a common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) with tracheobronchitis. PLoS ONE. 8(7): e68239.

Antonellis, G. A., S. Leatherwood, L. H. Cornell, and J. E. Antrim 1981. Activity cycles, feeding rates and food preferences of captive sea otters, Enhydra lutris. The Murelett., 62:6-9.

Antrim, J. 2001 Logistics of maintenance, rehabilitation and return to the pacific ocean of a California gray whale calf.  Aquatic Mammals.  27(3):228-230.

Antrim, J. E., and Cornell, L.H. 1980. Reproduction of sea otters in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook., 20:76-80.

Antrim, J., and McBain, J.F. 2001. Marine Mammal Transport. In: L. A. Dierauf and F. M. D. Gulland (Eds.), CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, 2nd Edition. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.

Antrim, J., J. F. McBain, and D. Parham 1998. Rehabilitation and release of a gray whale calf: J.J.’s story.Endangered Species Update. 15(5):84-89.

Argade, S., Smith, C. R., Shaw, T., Zupkas, P., Schmitt, T. L., Venn-Watson, S. and Sur, R. L. 2013. Solubility of ammonium acid urate nephroliths from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine.44(4), 853-858.

Asper, E. D. 1975. Techniques of live-capture of smaller Cetacea. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board, Canada. 32(1):191-196.

Asper, E. D., and J. H. Prescott 1970. Courtship and nesting of captive black-footed albatrosses, Diomedia nigripes. International Zoo Yearbook. 10: 90-92.

Asper, E. D., L. H. Cornell, D. A. Duffield, and L. Dimeo-Ediger 1988. Marine mammals in zoos, aquaria and marine zoological parks in North America: 1983 census report. International Zoo Yearbook. 27:287-294.

Asper, E.D. and Cornell, L.H. 1977. Live capture statistics for the killer whale (Orcinus orca) 1961-1976 in California, Washington and British Columbia. Aquatic Mammals. 5(1):21-26.

Asper, E.D., Cornell, L.H., Duffield, D.A., Odell, D.K., Joseph, B.E., Stark, B.L. and Perry, C.A. 1990. Hematology and serum chemistry values in bottlenose dolphins. pp. 479-485 In: Leatherwood, S., Reeves, R. (Eds). The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego, CA.

Asper, E.D., Young, G.W. and Walsh, M.T. 1988. Observations on the birth and development of a captive-born killer whale. International Zoo Yearbook. 27:295-304.

Barros, N. B., and D. K. Odell 1990. Food habits of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the southeastern United States. pp. 309-328. In: S. Leatherwood and R. Reeves (Eds.), The Bottlenose Dolphin. Academic Press: San Diego, CA.

Bechert. U., Christensen, M.J., Poppenga, R., Le, H., Wyatt, J. and Schmitt, T. 2010. Pharmacokinetics of orally administered terbinafine in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) for potential treatment of aspergillosis. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 41(2):263-274.

Begeman, L., St. Leger, J.A., Blyde, D.J., Jauniaux, T.P., Lair, S., Lovewell, G., Raverty S., Seibel H., Siebert U., Staggs, S.L., Martelli P. and Keesler, R.I. 2013. Intestinal volvulus in cetaceans. Veterinary Pathology. 50(4): 590-596.

Bejarano, A. C., Gulland, F. M., Goldstein, T., St. Leger, J., Hunter, M., Schwacke, L. H., Van Dolah, F. M. and Rowles, T.K. 2008. Demographics and spatio-temporal signature of the biotoxin domoic acid in California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) stranding records. Marine Mammal Science. 24(4): 899-912.

Beldegreen, R.A., and E.D. Asper 1980. Captive Breeding and Husbandry Techniques for Adelie Penguins. International Zoo Yearbook. 20:197-200.

Benirschke, K., and L. H. Cornell 1987. The placenta of the killer whale, Orcinus orca. Marine Mammal Science. 3(1):82-86.

Benz, G. W., P. J. Mohan, and G. L. Crow 1992. Developmental stages of Paralebion elongatus from aquarium-held reef whitetip sharks (Triaenodon obesus) captured in Hawaiian waters. Journal of Parasitology. 78(6):1027-1035.

Berman-Kowalewski, M., Gulland, F.M.D., Wilkin, S., Calambokidis, J., Mate, B., Cordaro, J., Rotstein, D., St. Leger, J., Collins, P., Fahy, K. and Dover, S. 2010. Association between blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) mortality and ship strikes along the California coast. Aquatic Mammals. 36(1): 59-66.

Beusse, D. O., E. D. Asper, J. N. Baucom, and S. W. Searles 1977. Diethylcarbamazine citrate for prevention of heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) in the California sea lion (Zalophus californianus). Veterinary Medicine – Small Animal Clinician. 1977:470-471.

Bissell, H. 2014. Nutritional implications of the high-elevation lifestyle of Rhinopithecus bieti. pp.199-210 In: Grow, N.B., Gursky-Doyen, S., Krzton, A. (Eds.) High Altitude Primates, Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects 44. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Black, P. A., Macek, M., Tieber, A. and Weber, M. 2013. Reference values for hematology, plasma biochemical analysis, plasma protein electrophoresis, and aspergillus serology in elegant-crested tinamou (Eudromia elegans). Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery. 27(1): 1-6.

Black, P.A., Trent, A.M., Bauman, J.E., Farnsworth, R.J., Monfort, S.L..2011. Fecal steroid analysis for evaluating ovarian function in the greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 42(4):558-64.

Black, P.A., D. L. McRuer, and L. Horne. 2011. Hematologic parameters in raptor species in a rehabilitation setting before release. Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery, 25(3):192-198.

Blankenship, B., Dold, C., Jensen, E., Smith, C., Van Bonn, W. and Ridgway, S. 2008. Neuronal migration defect: A case of subcortical heterotopia in a California sea lion. Veterinary Pathology 45(3): 412-416.

Bodley, K., and T.L. Schmitt.  2014.  Penguins, pp. 435-443.  In G. West, D.J. Heard, and N. Caulkett (Eds), Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia, Second Edition.  John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Ames, IA.

Bossart, G. D., T. Reidarson, L. A. Dierauf, and D. Duffield 2001. Pathology of Marine Mammals: Clinical Pathology. In: L. A. Dierauf and F. M. D. Gulland (Eds.), CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine. CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL.

Bowles, A. E., W. G. Youngand E. D. Asper 1988. Ontogeny of stereotyped calling of a killer whale calf, Orcinus orca, during her first year. Rit Fiskideildar., 11:251-275.

Brodie, E. C., Gulland, F.M.D., Greig, D.J., Hunter, M., Jaakola, J., St. Leger, J., Leighfield, T.A. and Van Dolah, F.M. 2006. Domoic acid causes reproductive failure in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus). Marine Mammal Science22(3):700-707.

Browning, N. E., Dold, C., I-Fan, J., and Worthy, G. A. J. 2014. Isotope turnover rates and diet-tissue discrimination in skin of ex situ bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). The Journal of Experimental Biology. 217: 214-221.

Bruehler, G. L., DiRocco, S., Ryan, T. and Robinson, K. 2001. Husbandry and hand-rearing of a rehabilitating California gray whale calf. Aquatic Mammals. 27(3): 222-227.

Buck, C., G. P. Paulino, D. J. Medina, G. D. Hsiung, T. W. Campbell, and M. T. Walsh 1993. Isolation of St. Louis encephalitis virus from a killer whale. Clinical Diagnostic Virology. 1:109-112

Buckles, E. L, Lowenstine, L. J., Funke, C., Vittore, R. K., Wong, H. N., St. LegerJ., Greig, D. J., Duerr, R. S., Gulland, F. M. D. and Stott, L. J. 2006. Otarine herpesvirus-1, not papillomavirus, is associated with endemic tumours in California Sea Lions (Zalophus californianus). Journal of Comparative Pathology. 135(4): 183-189.

Buckles, E. L., Lowenstine, L.J., DeLong, R.L, Melin, S.R., Vittore, R.K., Wong, H.N., Ross, G.L, St. Leger, J.A., Greig, D.J., Duerr, R.S., Gulland, F.M.D. and Stott, J.L. 2007. Age-prevalence of otarine herpesvirus-1, a tumor-associated virus, and possibility of its sexual transmission in California sea lions. Veterinary Microbiology. 120: 1-8.

Burch, L. E., and C. Gailband 2000. Comparison of hand-reared Caribbean flamingos and lesser flamingos at SeaWorld California. Waterbirds., 23 (Special Publication 1):193-197.

Burton, M., J. Olsen, R. Ball, and G. DumonceauxMycobacterium aviaum subsp. Paratuberculosis infection in an addax (Addax nasomaculatus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 32(2): 242-244.

Butterworth, A., S.C. Kestin, and J.F. McBain. 2004. Evaluation of baseline indices of sensibility in captive cetaceans. Veterinary Record 155: 513-518.

Campbell, T. W. 1990. Common parasites of exotic pets – part I. Veterinary Technician. 11(4):223-225.

Campbell, T. W. 1993. Amphibian husbandry and medical care. Veterinary Technician. 14(10):601-605.

Campbell, T. W. 1994. Cytology. pp. 199-222. In: B. W. Ritchie, G. J. Harrison and L. R. Harrison (Eds.), Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Wingers Publishing, Inc.: Lake Worth, FL.

Campbell, T. W. 1994. Hematology. pp. 176-198. In: B. W. Ritchie, G. J. Harrison and L. R. Harrison (Eds.), Avian Medicine: Principles and Application. Wingers Publishing, Inc.: Lake Worth, FL.

Campbell, T. W., and B. Phillips 1993. Rehabilitation of sea turtles. Veterinary Technician. 14(3):165-169.

Campbell, T. W., J. D. Letcher, and D. H. Nielsen 1993. Diseases of aquarium fish. pp. 45-49. In: P. W. Pratt (Ed.), Review Questions and Answers for Veterinary Boards, Ancillary Topics. American Veterinary Publications, Inc.:Goleta, CA.

Campbell, T., and F. Murru 1990. An introduction to fish hematology. The Compendium. 12(4):525-532.

Cassiano, E.J., Wittenrich, M.L., Violetta, G.C., and Watson, C.A. 2012. Growth and survival of poarkfish (Anisotremus virginicus) large: comparing rotifers and copepod nauplii during first feeding. ABAH Bioflux. 4(2):72-78.

Clark, S. 2002. First report of albinism in the white-spotted bamboo shark, Chiloscyllium plagiosum (Orectolobiformes: Hemiscyllidae), with a review of reported color aberrations in elasmobranchs. Zoo Biology. 21(6): 519-524.

Clark, S. T. 2000. Age, growth, and distributions of the giant snake eel, Ophichthus rex, in the Gulf of Mexico. Bulletin of Marine Science. 67(3): 911-922.

Clark, S. T. and D. K. Odell 1999. Allometric relationships and sexual dimorphism in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Journal of Mammalogy. 80(3): 777-785.

Clark, S. T., and Odell, D. K. 1999. Nursing parameters in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Zoo Biology18(5): 373-384.

Clark, S. T., Odell, D. K. and Lacinak, C. T. 2000. Aspects of growth in captive killer whales (Orcinus orca). Marine Mammal Science. 16(1): 110-123.

Clark, S.T. and Odell, D. K. 1999. Nursing behaviors in captive false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens). Aquatic Mammals. 25(3): 183-191.

Clemmons, R. M., E. R. Stetzer, M. T. Walsh, and D. O. Beusse 1984. Polyradiculoneuritis in a California sea lion.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 185(11):1410-1412.

Colegrove, K. M., St. Leger, J. A., Raverty, S., Jang, S., Berman-Kowalewski, M. and Gaydos, J. K. 2010. Salmonella newport omphaloarteritis in a stranded killer whale (Orcinus orca) neonate. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 46(4): 1300-1304.

Colegrove, K. M., Wellehan, J. F. X., Rivera, R., Moore, P. F., Gulland, F. M. D., Lowenstine, L. J., Nordhausen, R.W. and Nollens, H. H. 2010. Polyomavirus infection in a free-ranging California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) with intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 22(4): 628-632.

Colitz, C. M., Saville, W. J., Renner, M. S., McBain, J. F., Reidarson, T. H., Schmitt, T.L., Nolan, E.C., Dugan, S.J., Knightly, F., Rodriguez, M.M., Mejia-Fava, J.C., Osborn, S.D., Clough, P.L., Collins, S.P., Osborn, B.A. and Terrell, K. 2010. Risk factors associated with cataracts and lens luxations in captive pinnipeds in the United States and the Bahamas. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 237(4): 429-436.

Colitz, C. M., Renner, M. S., Manire, C. A., Doesher, B., Schmitt, T. L. , Osborn, S. D.Croft, L., Olds, J., Gehring, E., Mergl, J., Tuttle, A. D., Sutherland-Smith, M., Olds, J., and Rudnick, J. C. 2010. Characterization of progressive keratitis in otariids. Veterinary Ophthalmology. 13(s1): 47-53.

Cornell, L. H. 1978. Capture, Transportation, Restraint and Marking. pp. 573-579. In: Fowler (Ed.), Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine. W.B. Saunders: Philadelphia, PA.

Cornell, L. H. 1986. Zoological Parks and Aquariums – Bridges of Learning. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 76(1):51-55.

Cornell, L. H., and E. D. Asper 1978. A census of captive marine mammals in North America. International Zoo Yearbook. 18:220-224.

Cornell, L. H., and J. E. Antrim 1987. Anesthesia and tusk extraction in walrus. Journal of Zoo Animal Medicine. 18:3-6.

Cornell, L. H., B. J. Golden, and K. Osborn 1975. Pseudopersistent urachus in a baby walrus. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 167(7): 548-549.

Cornell, L. H., D. A. Duffield, B. E. Joseph, and B. Stark 1988. Hematology and serum chemistry values in the beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 24(2):220-224.

Cornell, L. H., E. D. Asper, and D. A. Duffield 1982. Census update: captive marine mammals in North America. International Zoo Yearbook. 22:227-232.

Cornell, L. H., E. D. Asper, J. E. Antrim, S. W. Searles, W. G. Young, and T. Goff 1987. Progress report: results of a long-range captive breeding program for the bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus gilli. Zoo Biology. 6(1):41-53.

Cornell, L. H., J. E. Antrim, K. Osborn, and J. Simpson 1979. Coccidiomycosis in a wild California sea otter (Enhydra lutris). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 15(3): 373-378.

Cornell, R., R. Cortell, J. Stofan, and W. Street 1994. Information highway’s educator’s update. Educational Media International. 31(2):92-97.

Cornell. L.H. 1983. Hematology and clinical chemistry values in the killer whale (Orcinus orca ). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 19(3):259-264.

Crance, J.L., A.E. Bowles, and A. Garver.:  Evidence for vocal learning in juvenile male killer whales, Orcinus orca, from an adventitious cross-socializing experiment.  2014;   The Journal of Experimental Biology. 217:1229-1237  (doi:10.1242/jeb.094300).

Cranford, T. W., McKenna, M. F., Soldevilla, M. S., Wiggins, S. M., Goldbogen, J. A., Shadwick, R. E., Krysl, P., St. Leger, J. A., and Hildebrand, J. A. 2008. Anatomic geometry of sound transmission and reception in Cuvier’s beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris). The Anatomical Record. 291(4), 353-378.

Croft, L., Napoli, E., Hung, C. K., Leger, J. S., Gearhart, S., Heym, K., Wong S., Sakaguchi, D., Lin, A. Puschner, B. and Giulivi, C. 2013. Clinical evaluation and biochemical analyses of thiamine deficiency in Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) maintained at a zoological facility. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 243(8), 1179-1189.

Dailey, M., M. Walsh, D. Odell, and T. Campbell 1991. Evidence of prenatal infection in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) with lungworm, Halocercus lagenorhynchi (Nematoda: Pseudaliidae). Journal of Wildlife Disease. 27(1):164-165.

Danil, K., St. Leger, J.A., Dennison, S., Bernaldo de Quirόs, Y., Scadeng, M., Nilson, E., and Beauulieu, N. 2014.  Clostridium perfringens septicemia in a long-beaked common dolphin Delphinus capensis: an etiology of gas bubble accumulation in cetaceans.  Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.  111: 183-190.  doi: 10.3354/dao02783.

Danil, K. and St. Leger, J. A. 2011. Seabird and dolphin mortality associated with underwater detonation exercises. Marine Technology Society Journal. 45(6): 89-95.

Danil, K., Chivers, S. J., Henshaw, M. D., Thieleking, J. L., Daniels, R. and St. Leger, J. A. 2010. Cetacean strandings in San Diego County, California, USA: 1851–2008. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management. 11(2): 163–184.

Dau, B. K., Gilardi, K.V., Gulland, F. M. D., Higgins, A., Holcomb, J. B., St. Leger, J. and Ziccardi, M. H. 2009. Fishing gear-related injury in California marine wildlife. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(2): 355-362.

Davis, R. W., T. M. Williams, J. A. Thomas, R. A. Kastelein, and L. H. Cornell 1988. The effects of oil contamination and cleaning on sea otters (Enhydra lutris). II. Metabolism, thermoregulation and behavior. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 66:2782-2790.

Diebold, E. N., S. Branch, and L. Henry 1999. Management of penguin populations in North American zoos and aquariums. Marine Ornithology. 27:171-176.

Dierenfeld, E. S., N. Katz, J. Pearson, F. Murru, and E. D. Asper 1991. Retinol and a-tocopherol concentrations in whole fish commonly fed in zoos and aquariums. Zoo Biology. 10:119-125.

Dold, C. and Ridgway, S. 2007. Cetaceans. pp. 485-496 In: G. West, D. Heard, and N Kaulkett (Eds.) Zoo Animal and Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK.

Dudley, M. 1992. First Pacific record of a hooded seal, Cystophora cristata, 1777. Marine Mammal Science. 8(2):164-168.

Duffield, D. A., J. Chamberlin-Lea, and J. E. Antrim 1996. A complex chromosome rearrangement of the karyotype of a wild-caught male sea otter. Endangered Species UPDATE. 13(12):68-72.

Duffield, D. A., S. H. Ridgway, and L. H. Cornell 1983. Hematology distinguishes coastal and off-shore forms of dolphins (Tursiops). Canadian Journal of Zoology. 61(4):930-933.

Duffield, D.A., Odell, D.K., McBain, J.F. and Andrews, B.A. 1995. Killer whale (Orcinus orca) reproduction at Sea World. Zoo Biology. 14:417-430.

Duffy, D. C., F. S. Todd, and W. R. Siegfried 1987. Submarine foraging behavior of alcids in an artificial environment. Zoo Biology. 6:373-378.

Duignan, P. J., C. House, D. K. Odell, R. S. Wells, L. J. Hansen, M. T. Walsh, D. J. St. Aubin, B. K. Rima, and J. R. Geraci 1996. Morbillivirus infection in bottlenose dolphins: evidence for recurrent epizootics in the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Marine Mammal Science. 12(4):499-515.

Duignan, P. J., C. House, J. R. Geraci, G. Early, H. G. Copland, M. T. Walsh, G. D. Bossart, C. Cray, S. Sadove, D. J. St. Aubin, and M. Moore 1995. Morbillivirus infection in two species of pilot whales (Globicephala sp.) from the Western Atlantic. Marine Mammal Science., 11(2):150-162.

Duignan, P. J., C. House, J. R. Geraci, N. Duffy, B. K. Rima, M. T. Walsh, G. Early, D. J. St. Aubin, S. Sadove, H. Koopman, and H. Rhinehart 1995. Morbillivirus infection in cetaceans of the Western Atlantic. Veterinary Microbiology. 44:241-249.

Dumonceaux, G. A., A. J. Smith, and M. M. Garner 1999. Anterior coelomic rhabdomyosarcoma in a Central American banded gecko, Coleonyx mitratus. Bulletin of the Association of Reptilian and Amphibian Veterinarians. 9(1):23-25.

Dumonceaux, G. 2006. Digestive System. pp. 299-307 In M. E. Fowler and S. K. Mikota (Eds.) Biology, Medicine and Surgery of Elephants. Blackwell Publishing, Ames, Iowa

Dumonceaux, G., J. Baumann, and G. Camilo. 2006. Evaluation of progesterone levels in feces of captive reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37(3): 255-261.

Dumonceaux, G., R. Isaza, D. E. Koch, and R.P. Hunter. 2005. Pharmacokinetics and I.M. bioavailability of ceftiofur in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Journal of Pharmacology Therapeutics 28(5): 441-446.

Dumonceaux, G. A., J. St. Leger, J. H. Olsen, M. S. Burton, D. Ashkin, and J. N. Maslow. 2011. Genitourinary and pulmonary multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in an Asian elephant (Elephas maximus). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 42(4): 709-712

Dunn, J. L., J. D. Buck, and T. R. Robeck 2001. Infectious Diseases of Marine Mammals: Bacterial Diseases of Cetaceans and Pinnipeds. pp. 309-335. In: L. A. Dierauf and F. M. D. Gulland (Eds.), CRC Handbook of Marine Mammal Medicine, 2nd Edition. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Durden, W. N., St. Leger, J., Stolen, M., Mazza, T. and Londono, C. 2009. Lacaziosis in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the Indian River Lagoon, Florida, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 45(3): 849-856.

Edds, P. L., D. K. Odell, and B. R. Tershy 1993. Vocalizations of a captive juvenile and free-ranging adult-calf pairs of Bryde’s whale, Balaenoptera edeni. Marine Mammal Science. 9(3):269-284.

Eisner, T. and Dalton, L. M. 1993. Emetic voidance of stomach lining induced by massive beetle ingestion in a beluga whale. Journal of Chemical Ecology. 19(8): 1833-1836.

Emerson, C. L., J. A. C. Eurell, M. D. Brown, M. Walsh, D. Odell, and J. L. Wagner 1990. Ruptured intervertebral disc in a juvenile king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonica). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine. 21(3):345-350.

Erickson, K. L., L. DiMolfetto-Landon, R. S. Wells, T. Reidarson, J. L. Stott, and D. A. Ferrick 1995. Development of an interleukin-2 receptor expression assay and its use in evaluation of cellular immune responses in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of Wildlife Diseases. 31(2):142-149.

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